Coniferous & Evergreen Trees

Cedar (Thuja occidentalis)

Cedars range in size from small shrubs to medium size trees.  They are characterized by their aromatic, scale like leaves and their rich green colour.  Cedars are shallow rooted and their roots should not be allowed to dry out.  They are slow growing and long lived doing best in somewhat sheltered conditions.  Unfortunately, deer love them.

Brandon Cedar

Height/Spread: 15'x 4' Zone: 3

Hardy fast growing cedar with bright green foliage. Dense columnar shape makes an excellent screen or accent plant. Easily grown and maintained.

Eastern White Cedar

Height/Spread: 45'x 25' Zone: 2

Much underused as a landscape tree.  It is slow growing and long lived.  Suited to moist mineral soil.  Roots are shallow and should not be allowed to dry out.  Well suited to the same areas as Paper Birch, White Spruce and Siberian Larch.

Skybound Cedar

Height/Spread: 15'x 4' Zone: 2

Much like Brandon Cedar but hardier with darker foliage

Techny Cedar

Height/Spread: 15'x 6' Zone: 3

One of the faster growing and hardiest cedars.  A broad pyramid shape with dark green foliage year round. Excellent for screens, borders or a tall hedge.

Fir (Abies)

Firs are trees of fairly moist areas and do best with consistently moist soils.  They are the standard for "Christmas trees" with their symmetrical shape, dark green flat needles and unmistakable aroma.  Grow under the same conditions as white spruce.

Balsam Fir

Height/Spread: 50'x 20 Zone: 2

A narrow pyramidal form and lustrous dark green needles make this evergreen useful as a specimen tree.  Strongly aromatic.  Full sun to part shade.

Larch (Larix)

This is a colourful family of trees found throughout the boreal forest.  Unlike most conifers, they are deciduous - their needles turn gold and drop off in the fall.  While some people don't like the bare tree in winter, the lovely green of the soft needles followed by the gold colour in the fall makes them a great asset planted as contrast among evergreens.  Plant as you would white spruce.

Siberian Larch

Height/Spread: 65'x 30' Zone: 2

Deciduous tree with broad pyramidal shape. Needles are slightly longer than native Tamarack and turn bright yellow in fall. Prefers moist well-drained soil.  Does not tolerate flooding.  Very fast growing.  They grow best in full sun but are hard to establish on dry sites.

Tamarack  *Not in stock for 2014*

Height/Spread: 60'x 20' Zone: 1

The native version of the Siberian Larch.  Tamarack is slightly smaller than the Siberian and there is a small difference in fall colour.  Perhaps the biggest difference is that the native tree is more versatile growing well on moist upland sites but being much more tolerant of wet sites.  Often found in mixed stands with Black Spruce and White Cedar.

Pine (Pinus)

Pines are generally trees of sandy, acid, well-drained soils.  They are harder to establish than spruce but faster growing once established.  They do not tolerate wet conditions.  Grown in the open , pines can be very full, attractive trees but, wherever grown, they usually have "character".

Mugo Pine  *Not in stock for 2014*

Height/Spread: 25'x 15 - 25'  Zone: 2

Compact, dense and very slow growing, the Mugo is a pine from high altitudes in European mountains.  It performs remarkably well on soils with a high pH and is fairly well adapted to urban sites.  Needles of this two-needle Pine are held on the tree for more than four years making this one of the denser Pines suitable for a screen planting.  Drought tolerant.  Does well on loamy soils.

Red Pine

Red Pine

Height/Spread: 70'x 25'  Zone: 2

Pyramidal when young; developing an oval shape with age.  Full sun. It prefers dry, sandy, acidic soils and is not well adapted to clay.  Intolerant of salt and sensitive to soil compaction.  Red pines seem to do best treated with "benign neglect".

Scots Pine

Height/Spread:60'x 20' Zone: 2

Fast growing pine with broad pyramidal shape. Attractive reddish bark. This is the pine most tolerant of clay soils. Durable, low maintenance tree.

Spruce (Picea)

Spruces are one of our most identifiable trees.  They can be very different in the kinds of growing conditions they prefer.  Most of our white spruce are of boreal forest origin but some cultivars are native to hotter, drier parts of the continent.  Most spruce do not establish well in open exposed areas.  Spruce are a climax species and usually come up under existing trees until openings in the forest give them a chance to take off.  Spruce like moisture but do not like wet conditions for extended periods.

Black Spruce  

Height/Spread: 75'x 15' Zone: 1

Not generally considered a landscape tree, the Black Spruce usually grows on wet organic soils, but productive stands are found on a variety of soil types from deep humus through clays, loams, sands, coarse till.  Upland trees are much more attractive than those grown in wet conditions.  Useful for wet areas where not much else will grow.

Colorado Spruce

Height/Spread: 65'x 25' Zone: 2

Not all Colorado Spruce are blue. Colorado Green and Blue share everything but colour.  They are tall pyramidal trees with sharp pointed needles. Attractive as a single specimen or in mass plantings. More drought tolerant than most White Spruce but more likely to suffer winter burn. Does not tolerate flooding.  Should be protected until established.

Colorado Blue Spruce

Height/Spread: 65'x 25' Zone: 2


See note above

White Spruce

Height/Spread: 60'x 20' Zone: 2

Full sun, but can also tolerate light shade.  Prefers moist, well drained soils, but tolerates dry and wet sites for short periods. Adaptable to many conditions, it is pollution tolerant.  Not as drought tolerant as Colorado Spruce but less subject to winter burn.  Should be protected until established

Black Hills Spruce

Black Hills White Spruce  

Height/Spread: 40'x 20' Zone: 2

This strain of White Spruce comes from South Dakota.  It is smaller, denser, darker, slower growing and somewhat more drought resistant than our boreal forest White Spruce.  It is an excellent feature tree for a smaller yard and has fewer problems with disease and winter burn than Colorado Spruce

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